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Once Upon a Time with Queen Victoria in Aix-les-Bains

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She may not have been the first, but Queen Victoria’s presence in the French alpine town of Aix-les-Bains is probably among the best-known and most fondly remembered. Bluntly said, she put Aix (as it’s known by those on a first-name basis with the city) on the map.

In the latter years of the 19th century, you couldn’t walk a block in Aix without tripping over a crowned head or a billionaire industrialist.

From the Aga Khan to the King of Greece, from Empresses Eugenie and Sissi to maharajas, princes, writers and prime ministers, all jostled for seats in the gardens of exclusive hotels or for a table in the avant-garde restaurants of the era. Few would be caught dead missing a season in Aix.

In its heyday, which lasted until the outbreak of World War I, this little French town on the shores of the Lac du Bourget was stuffed fuller with aristocrats than any European Court.

The tiaras and footmen may now be gone but many of the spaces in which aristocratic heads craned to spot the latest fashion are still there – the Casino, the baths and the four-star hotels, now transformed into apartments.

If you love the Belle Epoque, if your heart skips a beat when you hear the words Art Nouveau or Art Deco, then loosen your velvet neck ribbon, straighten your cameo and take out your fan because Aix-les-Bains will make you swoon, even today.

Aix-les-Bains luxury hotels

Queen Maria Pia of Portugal dedicates the cornerstone of the Excelsior Hotel, one of the city’s most luxurious

With Queen Victoria in Aix-les-Bains

When Queen Victoria followed her daughter Beatrice’s advice and traveled to Aix-les-Bains for the first time in 1880, she was sealing the reputation of a thermal town with grandiose aspirations. Aix was already well-known beyond its borders but the Queen’s visits granted it the final seal of approval it needed to become the watering spot for Europe’s royalty.

A day in the life of Victoria’s Aix-les-Bains would have started with coffee at the Casino, followed by a treatment in the traditional baths, the thermes. The treatment would have involved some kind of bathing, massage, exfoliation – many of the treatments still available today.

After the baths would come lunch at one of the grand hotels, followed by the promenade, or stroll among one of the bandstands that dotted the Parc des Thermes or the lakeside.

With horse- or donkey-drawn carriages easily available, groups of curistes, or patients, might have gone on an excursion. The Queen on occasion would have visited the Grande Chartreuse monastery near Grenoble, for which she obtained personal permission from the Pope, since women weren’t allowed in back then. Or she might have traveled by horse carriage to the top of the Belvedere, one of her favorite rides, to enjoy the panoramic view and eat scones at La Chambotte. As the road narrowed, the Queen would have been carried the last stretch in a porter chair, of course.

Pastimes for wealthy visitors might have included golf (which made its first appearance in 1895), horse races at the hippodrome, shooting, sailing, clay pigeons, rowing, lawn tennis… there was never a dearth of things to do in Aix-les-Bains.

In the evening culture took over with a play or concert at the Casino Theater, a large red room (it used to be boring beige) still used today for cultural events. And if no performance was scheduled that night, there was – and still is – the Casino itself, which doctors once prescribed as a cure for melancholia. Sadness from losing too much, perhaps?

Casino Aix-les-Bains

In fact the Casino was so popular it became more a place to see and be seen than a gaming room. A petition was even circulated to ban women’s large hats so that prying eyes could scan the large room more easily.

Train PLM, FranceInitially visitors would travel to Aix by horse carriage, stopping along the way to sleep in a relais-poste (postal inn) or auberge. Getting to Aix became much easier after the launch of the famous PLM (Paris-Lyon-Marseille) railway in the 1860s, which hustled thermal patients From Paris to Aix in a mere 10-17 hours by comfortable sleeping coach.

Upon arrival – as happens in much of the world today – touts would converge at the station and “suggest” hotels and rentals. The more astute touts would board the train several hours before it pulled in, ingratiating themselves with travelers and arriving in Aix with their accommodation deals signed, sealed and delivered.

Queen Victoria would have arrived in a special royal wagon and, as she disliked the heat, would have looked forward to her visits during the cooler spring season.

Queen that she was, Victoria didn’t actually use the baths herself but she received her treatments privately, enjoying them so much that she brought a masseuse from Aix back to London with her. She also, so the story goes, took home a beleaguered donkey called Jacquot who had been mistreated.

The Grand Hotels, the ‘palaces’

In French these sublime hotels are called palaces, three graceful sisters who sit regally side by side, perched high above the lake.

While some visitors rented apartments or maintained residences in Aix – as did Queen Victoria – many preferred to keep rooms at one of the luxury hotels.

The first hotel to populate the upper reaches of Aix-les-Bains was the Grand Hotel, famous for its glass-enclosed atrium, a feature often found in spa towns and which allowed everyone to watch social comings and goings.

It was in this atrium that Pierpont Morgan, the American financier, first heard of the Titanic’s sinking. He must have felt great relief: he had initially vacillated about whether to visit Aix or sail home on the ill-fated ship.

Willa Cather Not Under Forty

Grand Hotel Aix les Bains

At its height Aix boasted three major palaces: the Royal, Splendide and Excelsior. These still stand but are undergoing varying degrees of restoration. Only now is protection of this extraordinary architecture being taken seriously and Aix, as did many cities during the second half of the 20th century, gave away much of its heritage to real estate promoters.

The success of Aix-les-Bains as a spa town continued well into the 20th century and an Art Nouveau and Art Deco building spree ensued. Many of these buildings still stand and while you won’t run into many billionaires or crowned heads, the Aix mystique remains.

Hotel Royal Aix old-fashioned

Royal Hotel Aix les Bains

The baths and spas of Aix-les-Bains

Wellness is in fashion today but there’s nothing new about it.

The first baths were built here in 125 B.C. by the Romans but for reasons unknown the waters were abandoned, to be rediscovered only during the 17th century. The first modern baths were built in 1779 by King Victor Amedeus III of Sardinia and soon, tourists would travel across Europe in such huge numbers to take the waters that an entire cult was created around the Aix ‘season’.

Thermal baths in Aix-les-Bains

This is some of the original artwork you can expect to see when you visit the old thermal baths

Until World War II, thermalism, as it is called in France, was an elite pastime, reserved for the wealthy 10,000 or so visitors Aix received each year. But in 1939 France introduced social security, which paid for thermal treatments, and the spa experience was democratized.

The two populations coexisted, the Anglo-American contingent which preferred the cooler April-June season, and the social security-funded curistes overflowing in the town as of July.

Queen Victoria, always a leader, made sure royalty converged upon Aix-les-Bains at least a few weeks each year. Aix for its part has remained loyal to the Queen by celebrating Empire Day on her birthday, keeping her memory alive, and even erecting a bronze bust in 1924 to commemmorate her visits to the town.

The many British citizens still living in Aix-les-Bains no doubt approve.

Bust of Queen Victoria in Aix-les-Bains, France

All antique photos courtesy AC Aix-les-Bains. All modern photos by Anne Sterck unless otherwise noted.

What every Woman on the Road should know

  • You can get to Aix by driving from Lyon (under 1.5 hours), taking the high-speed TGV train from Paris (3 hours), or flying  into Geneva or Lyon and taking the train from there (a bit more cumbersome).
  • I would plan on staying a day and a night at least. If you can rent a car, even better – you can drive up into some of France’s most beautiful alpine scenery.
  • Trying the spa treatments is a… treat. Talk to the tourist office (or if you read French, this website).
  • Looking for the perfect French boulangerie? Head for Sabourdy, which came in third in France’s much-vaunted ‘best boulangerie in France’ regional contest.
  • Book your hotel in Aix-les-Bains through my affiliate link at booking.com (you’ll be helping this blog by doing so!)

This article is part of the My Rhône-Alpes series, in which I’ve been exploring this entire region – I live here and love it. Thanks to the Aix-les-Bains and Rhône-Alpes Tourist Offices for organizing this visit and hosting Women on the Road. Opinions are my own: I’m opinionated and plan to stay that way.


  1. Mike on September 26, 2014 at 4:48 pm

    This is a wonderful history lesson.

  2. Angie | Big Bear's Wife on November 3, 2014 at 9:39 pm

    I love places like this that have so much history with them! What an amazing place! Love the details and the photos!

  3. Jennifer on November 3, 2014 at 11:40 pm

    Spa, amazing food, wine. I think I’m in love!

  4. Kimberly @ The Daring Gourmet on November 4, 2014 at 1:49 am

    This is wonderful and I love the historical components! Great article!

  5. leslie on November 4, 2014 at 1:58 am

    How luxurious! Gambling and a spa! Im in!

  6. Ashley | Spoonful of Flavor on November 4, 2014 at 3:11 am

    Wow, what a beautiful place to spend a few nights! I love places with rich history!

  7. @Travelpanties on November 4, 2014 at 3:50 am

    I love learning all the history. Your photos are gorgeous. And I love how you contrast with the old ones! I am now longing to hop on a plane!

  8. Christina @ Christina's Cucina on November 4, 2014 at 6:07 pm

    Wow, what a lovely place to visit! Love the history here and the old pics and new. Thanks for highlighting Aix-le-Bains!

  9. LyndaS on November 5, 2014 at 2:24 pm

    Thanks for sharing the history of this town. It makes me want to go there even more.

  10. Carrie @Frugal Foodie Mama on November 5, 2014 at 8:08 pm

    What a rich and posh history this area has! 🙂 Ohhhhhh… to be a European aristocrat in the late 1800’s. 😉 Thank you for providing so much of the history of this place!

  11. Andi on November 6, 2014 at 2:04 am

    While living in L’Ain for three years we visited Aix-les-Bains several times and it is so charming. My mother-in-law lives in another thermal town – Vichy – and I find the spa/thermal history fascinating!!

  12. JulieD on November 7, 2014 at 5:42 pm

    Love it! Would love to stay there one day!

  13. Jenny Flake on November 7, 2014 at 6:41 pm

    Wow this is beautiful!! Bookmarking for sure!

  14. Paula on November 14, 2014 at 4:54 am

    How cool is this?! I’m heading that way this summer – definitely looks like it should be on my list of must sees.

    • Leyla Giray Alyanak on November 14, 2014 at 9:32 am

      Wonderful! If you need recommendations in the area – in Aix and beyond – let me know. This is my region and I live here! You can get in touch by posting something on my wall on Facebookk (I’m @womenontheroad).

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